Inventor, Marjorie Stewart Joyner (October 24, 1896 – December 27, 1994), was born in Virginia’s Blue Ridge Mountains. When she was a teenager she moved to Chicago, Illinois to study cosmetology. While attending school she met the famous beautician, Madam C.J. Walker, who had achieved success after entertainer Josephine Baker used her products. Dedicated to ensuring that women felt good about their looks, in 1928, Joyner patented a permanent wave machine that curled hair with curling irons and clamping devices. The machine allowed the hair to stay set for several days. While it was Joyner’s invention, she assigned her rights to Madame C.J. Walker. Joyner went on to become the Director of Madame Walker’s chain of beauty schools. In 1945, she co-founded the United Beauty School Owners and Teachers Association with Mary McLeod Bethune. During the depression, she worked to find housing and jobs for African Americans. Additionally, she served as the chair of the Bud Billiken Parade, the largest African American parade.